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SaaS API Integration Glossary

The following are some basic terms and definitions you should be familiar with. We also threw in a bunch of our own terms.

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A/B Test

An A/B test compares the performance of two items or variations on a web page against one another. In product management, A/B tests generally are used to discover which option performs better. An example of this would be two variations of a new user interface, where the variation that receives the most user engagement would result in that iteration winning the A/B test.

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Abstraction layer

A programming concept involving information hiding where the underlying implementation and any additional complexity is generalized to a common interface. The inputs and outputs of an abstraction layer should always remain the same.

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Abstraction level

See abstraction layer

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Acceptance criteria

Acceptance criteria, in an Agile methodology sense, refers to a set of predefined requirements that have to be completed for a user story to be marked complete. Acceptance criteria are also sometimes called the “definition of done” because a user story will not be considered finished until the scope and requirements are executed.

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Acceptance test

An acceptance test is the process of testing a new system, feature, or functionality against predefined acceptance criteria. Acceptance tests evaluate whether or not the product has met the predefined requirements laid out in the acceptance criteria that judges whether a user story has been fully completed.

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Access Token

Access Tokens are credentials that identify a user and their priveleges. An access token can be used to access an API either as an opaque string or a JSON web token. They relay to the API that the bearer of the token has been cleared and authorized to access the API and perform specific actions that are governed by the scope that has been granted.

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Activity Monitoring

Activity monitoring is used to monitor and track end user behavior on devices, networks, and other company-owned IT resources. Organizations generally implement user activity monitoring tools to aid in detecting and stopping insider threats, be they unintentional or with malicious intent. The wide-range of monitoring and methods utilized is entirely dependent on the objectives of the company. Click here for how-tos and articles related to activity monitoring.

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Adaptive Software Development (ASD)

Adaptive Software Development (ASD) is a direct evolution of Rapid Application Development (RAD), an earlier agile framework. It enables teams to quickly adapt to changing requirements or market needs by evolving their products with planning and continuous learning. The ASD approach consists of a three-phase process to development: speculation, collaboration, and learning.

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Adobe Experience Manager

Previously known as Adobe CQ5, this is Adobe's native cloud storage service to support all assets within Adobe Creative Cloud. Click here to learn how to connect to Adobe Experience Manager via OAuth 2.0.

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Affinity grouping

Affinity grouping prioritizes collaboration activity. This is done by having a group of participants brainstorm ideas and opportunities, generally on Post-It Notes. The notes are then sorted into groups of similar items. Once the groups are created, a vote is taken to rank the separate groups.

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Aggregate API

See Unified API

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Agile

Agile is an development methodology in which teams work in short “sprints,” and then rereconvene frequently to review the work and decide on possible changes. Agile methodology requires constant feedback, as well as the ability to quickly switch focus and prioritize tasks quickly. This is a leap from the more traditional, waterfall methodology, where product managers plan for long term discrete phases to be executed by their development teams.

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Agile framework

An agile framework is a software-development approach based on the agile philosophy articulated in the Agile Manifesto, consisting of short, iterative bursts of development.

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Agile manifesto

Originally published in 2001, the Agile Manisfesto consists of the the core values and principles that govern the agile approach to software development.

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Agile principals

There are 12 agile principles outlined in The Agile Manifesto that are created as actionable guidelines to represent the four agile values. They were created to help establish the tenets of the agile mindset. They are not rules set in stone for for practicing agile, but principles created to help reinforce agile thinking.

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Agile values

Agile Values are the four values outlined by the Agile Alliance in The Agile Manifesto. This set of values encourages people before processes, shipping software fast, customer collaboration, and adjusting plans as needed. The 4 agile values are as follow: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan

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AJAX

Short for "asynchronous JavaScript and XML," AJAX is a built-in jQuery method to perform HTTP requests to a server. AJAX uses JavaScript callbacks to send and recieve data, and is commonly used to update data on a site without refreshing a webpage.

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Alfresco

Alfresco is a document management software that primarily focuses on file system management for both Windows and Unix environments. Alfresco One is the ECM offering of the Alfresco Software that supports on-premise, cloud, mobile, and hybrid delivery options.

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Alias

Aliases, or commonly referred to as "domain aliases," allow a website to provide access to a singular site with multiple URL domain names. Unlike redirects, aliases will show the URL of the alias while providing the browser with the site from the original URL. Click here to read about our primary alias for the Unified Calendar API.

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Alpha Test

Typically conducted by a product manager when development is near completion, an alpha test is generally a small group of users who test the product for bugs or other issues. They are most commonly run in the software industry, and usually take place before any beta testing has occured.

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Amazon S3

Amazon S3, or "simple storage service," is a provider of cloud-based object storage made accessible through a web service interface. Click here for articles related to Kloudless and Amazon S3.

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Analytics and Business Intelligence Platforms

Analytics and Business intelligence platforms help enterprises build applications by providing three catagorical capabilities: analysis, such as online analytical processing; information delivery, such as reports and dashboards; and platform integration, such as metadata management and a development environment. Click here to read about why business analytics requires native activity to be actionable.

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API

An Application Programming Interface (API) enables software to interact with operating systems, applications, or other devices through exposed functionality. They are generally a part of a server that is created to receive requests and send responses.

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API Aggregation

See Unified API.

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API Documentation

API documentation are API-specific documents that outline proper use of an API. They usually consist of detailed accounts of every aspect of an API, from access to responses.

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API First

An API first approach is a methodology of designing APIs to deliver business, first and foremost. With API first design, programming interfaces are optimized for adoption. A platform is then used to rapidly implement the API by connecting it to backend services upon finalization.

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API Gateway

An API Gateway allows an API Manager agent to point to backend APIs and services through an abstracted layer. If a consumer applications invokes your services and APIs, they will be routed to the endpoints exposed by the gateway. This enforces runtime policies and collects and traces analytics data. An API Gateway helps to separate management from implementation concerns for backend services and APIs.

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API Guide

An API guide is a quick and concise reference containing what you need to know to use or work with an API. It details authentication, return types, endpoints, and more.

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API Key

The API Key allows you to make authorized requests to any account connected to your application. It is therefore not recommended to use API Keys for purposes other than development and testing unless you take precautions to ensure that your app's users do not access each other's data. One way to do this is to create a new Kloudless Application programmatically for each user via the Meta API. Only that user's accounts would then be accessible via that application. Click here to read about popular cloud apps' authentication schemes.

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API Management

API management is the process of publishing, promoting, and managing APIs in a secure, reliable environment. Creating support resources that define the API for end users is a means of effective API management.

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Application adapter

An application adapter is a layer of software that converts data from the application into a common form suited for integration with other applications.

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Application orchestration

Application orchestration, also referred to as service orchestration, is when processes are automated and data is synchronized in real-time between two or more applications and/or services.

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Authentication

Authentication is the process of identifying the user of an API. Common techniques for authentication include API Keys and OAuth. Click here to read more about popular cloud apps' authentication schemes.

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Autodesk

Autodesk is a software company that creates a multitude of software services for the architecture, engineering, construction, manufacturing, media, education, and entertainment industries. Their most popular offerings include AutoCAD, Maya, and BIM 360. Click here to read about Kloudless' integration with Autodesk.

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Axios

Axios is a Promise based HTTP client for the browser and Node.js. Axios has become a popular means of requesting and sending data, allowing HTTP requests to be sent from both the server or the client side.

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Azure Storage

Azure Storage is an object storage service provided by Microsoft for durable and highly scalable data storage in the cloud.

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Back office

A back office application is software used strictly for administrative purposes, and is not visible to consumers or end users.

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Backlog

Backlogs consist of a list of tasks required to properly execute on a larger strategic plan. A proper backlog should convey the next items on a project or feature's to-do list. The different types of backlogs include engineering backlogs, product backlogs, and sprint backlogs.

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Backlog grooming

Backlog grooming, also referred to as backlog refinement or story time, is the process of ensuring that the next few sprints worth of user stories in the product backlog are prepared for sprint planning. Backlog grooming sessions, when performed on a regular basis, also help ensure the right stories are prioritized.

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Batch job

A batch job is when a computer program or set of programs is processed in batch mode. This generally consists of a sequence of commands meant to be executed by the operating system being listed in a file and executed.

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Bearer Token

Bearer tokens are a type of access token (see above) created by the Authentication server. When a user authenticates an application, the authentication server will follow an authorization flow to verify the user's identity. The serve will respond with a Bearer Token that can be used to make API requests on behalf of the user. A Bearer Token is generally a secret value created by the authentication server and not a random value.

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Beta test

A beta test is a, usually widespread, pre-launch distribution of a product. It entails users being asked to try and test out the product and provide feedback to help guide improvement it before general availability. If both forms of testing are being implemented, beta testing occurs once alpha testing is complete.

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Bill of materials

A bill of materials (BOM) is a thorough and complete list of the materials or resources needed to sufficiently build a product. A BOM typically itemizes all the parts required in their necessary quantities.

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Bluebeam

Bluebeam is a construction-focused software company with many of their products centered around document sharing and creation. Bluebeam specializes in designing tools for creating, editing, marking up, collaborating and sharing PDF documents. Their main product is Bluebeam Revu, an alternative to Adobe Acrobat.

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Box

Box is a cloud content management and file sharing service for businesses or personal use, offering official clients and applications across all major operating systems and mobile platforms.

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Burndown chart

A burndown chart is a visual display of the tasks that have been completed and the tasks that remain in a project, sprint, or iteration. Burndown charts consist of an x-axis, which represents time, and a y-axis, which represents the tasks either completed or remaining to do.

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Business intelligence

Business Intelligence (BI), is a methodology which covers the compiling, analyzing and interpreting of business data in order to make better-informed decisions. BI data tends to be put together through extensive research across a wide range of sources like industry reports, customer feedback, actual usage data of the company’s products, and competitive research. Click here to read about why analytics requires native activity to be actionable.

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Business model canvas

Business model canvas' are a one-page summary that describe the high-level strategic details necessary to get a business (or product) to market. Typically, this tool is used to outline the fundamental building blocks of a business, but it also tends to apply to individual products effectively as well.

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Business process management

Business Process Management (BPM) is a system created to help automate the processes of businesses. Typically, a BPM system is delivered through a user interface to allow the modeling of business processes visually.

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Buyer persona

A buyer persona describes the broad range of individuals who have a say in the purchasing process according to the specifications of a product team. This tends to include influencers and decision makers who may not be using the product upon purchasing, and will likely differ from the user persona in regards to their goals and needs due to focusing on a larger demographic.

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Calendar API

A calendar API connects a locally-based application to a cloud-based calendar system, so that a user can send data to it and access data and events stored in it. Common examples include Google Calendar, iCloud Calendar, Outlook Calendar, and Microsoft Office 365. Click here to learn more about the Kloudless Unified Calendar API, which is also available on-premises.

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Cannibalization

In product management, cannibalization refers to when two seperate products from the same company compete with one other. To avoid cannibalization, product managers are often responsible for an entire line or suite of products.

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CASB

A Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB) is a software service created to sit between an organization's on-premises infrastructure and a cloud provider's infrastructure. CASB are made to monitor all activity and enforce security policies. Click here to read how CASB companies can differentiate themselves in the market with native connectivity.

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Category

A group of named or numbered items which share a similarity or defined criteria.

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Churn

Churn is a measurement used to refer to the percentage of user accounts that cancel or choose not to renew their subscriptions. A high churn rate can negatively impact Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR) and generally indicates user dissatisfaction with a product, service, or feature.

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Client

The client is the initiating party that sends an API request and recieves a response. There are generally many clients consuming the same API at the same time.

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Cloud Datastore

Cloud Datastore is a highly scalable, fully managed NoSQL database service offered by Google on their Google Cloud Platform for use in web and mobile applications. Employing a RESTful interface, Datastore comes equipped with a powerful query engine to allow the searching and sorting of data across multiple properties.

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Cloud Infrastructure as a Service

Cloud infrastructure as a service are one of the three main categories of cloud computing services, and are used to provide high-level APIs that dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security, and backup.

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Cloud integration

Cloud Integration is a system of tools and technologies that allow for applications to connect with and share data with one another in the cloud. The data and integrated cloud services can then be accessed by multiple devices over a network or via the internet.

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Cloud Integration Platform

A cloud integration platform is a product that integrates an organization's onsite files and resources with cloud-based services. It generally consists of a system of tools and technologies to connect various applications, systems, and environments to exchange data and processes.

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Cloud Storage

Cloud storage is a type of data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools. The physical storage generally spans multiple servers and the physical environment is usually owned and managed by a hosting company. Users and organizations generally buy or lease storage space from the providers to store user, organization, or application data.

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Cloud Storage API

A cloud storage API is an interface for accessing and manipulating cloud storage services in a programmatic fashion. They can be used for accessing both file storage and object storage providers. Popular offerings include Dropbox, Box, Google Drive, Egnyte, Amazon S3, Google Cloud, and more.

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CMIS

CMIS is an open standard that allows for interoperability between different content management systems.

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Collection

An API resource that groups other resources together in an executable API description. For an example, click here for an introduction to the Kloudless Postman collection.

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Connector

Kloudless offers all of their third-party API offerings as connectors. When using any of Kloudless' Unified APIs, all available connectors are able to accessed and authenticated. Click here to view all our connectors.

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Content collaboration platform

A content collaboration platform is a specific type of business software that adds a multitude of social networking capabilities to work processes.

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Content services platforms

A content services platform is cloud-based software that allows users to create, share, collaborate on and store text, audio and video content.

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Continuous deployment

Continuous deployment is a software product development strategy that reduces the amount of time between writing code and then pushing it live. In this agile-inspired strategy, common practices include automated testing and automated releases.

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Continuous integration

Continuous Integration (CI) is a practice in development that entails developers integrating their code into a shared repository once or several times a day. Every time code is merged, it is verified by an automated build which checks against a series of tests. Using CI allows teams to detect problems early, instead of running into possible issues that may arise by large chunks of code or functionality being merged into a codebase at one time.

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CRM

Customer-relationship management is an tool to manage a company's interactions with customers. It utilizes data analysis about customers' history with a company to improve business relationships with current and potential customers, specifically focusing on customer retention and driving sales growth.

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CRM lead management

Also referred to as customer aquisition management, CRM Lead management is a set of methodologies, systems, and practices designed to generate new potential business clientele. CRM is generally operated through a variety of marketing campaigns or programs, targeted towards specified user groups.

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Cross-functional team

A cross-functional team is generally referred to as a group that contains expertise or representation from various “functional” departments. An agile cross-functional team usually consists of a product manager, product owner, scrum master, engineers, QA, and design.

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CRUD

CRUD stands for "Create, Read, Update, Delete," which are the four verbs that accompany most actions in a RESTful API. The verbs correspond to the HTTP methods POST, GET, PUT/PATCH, and DELETE.

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Crystal agile framework

Crystal is an agile framework that focuses on individuals and their interactions, instead of processes and tools. The Crystal agile framework is a direct evolution of one of the core values articulated in the Agile Manifesto. The Crystal agile framework is governed by two core beliefs: 1. Teams focus on finding ways on their own to improve and optimize their workflows 2. Every project is unique and always changing, which dictates why a project’s team is the best suited to determine the unique needs of a project

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CSS

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets, a language used to describe how HTML should be displayed. CSS can determine everything from spacing and design to animation. CSS is one of the 3 "building blocks" of webpages, along with HTML and JavaScript.

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cURL

cURL, or "Client URL," is a library and comand-line tool that allows the retrieval or sending of data using a wide range of common network protocols.

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Customer acquisition cost

Customer Acquisition Cost, or CAC, measures how much a company is spending to acquire new customers. Analyzing CAC in conjunction with LTV (Loan-to-value ratio) or MRR (Monthly recurring revenue) is a common way to discover whether or not a company is operating efficiently.

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Customer advisory board

Many businesses use a customer advisory board, or CAB, to assist with their market and customer research efforts. A customer advisory board is a group of customers who convene on a regular basis to share insights and advice with the organization they assist with. Generally, customer advisory board members are high-level executives at their organizations and can provide in-depth market insight as a result.

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Customer development

Customer development is a framework for validating of customer needs when a new business is founded or a new product is being considered. Steve Blank is the creator of this 4-step framework.

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Customer Experience

Customer experience is the product of an interaction between an organization and a customer. It is usually the result of this interaction over the duration of their relationship.

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DACI Decision-Making Framework

The DACI decision-making framework is a model designed to help improve the effectiveness of a team's projects. This is done by assigning team members specific roles and responsibilities for group decisions. The names for these roles and responsibilities make up each letter of the acronym DACI: Driver (the person who drives the decision), Approver (the person who makes the decision), Contributors (the people or teams whose work or knowledge aid in the project), and Informed (the people whose work might be affected by these decisions and who therefore need to be kept in the loop).

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Data encryption

The process of using algorithms or ciphers to protect electronic data.

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Data integration

Data integration is the process of retrieving and combining data from different sources into a unified set of data. Data integration can be used to combine data for users, organizations, and applications.

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Data Integration Tools

Data integration tools combine data from different sources with the goal of providing a unified view of the combined data. This lets you query and manipulate all of your data from a single interface, perform analytics, and generate statistics. Examples include IBM InfoSphere, Oracle Data Service Integrator, and Centerprise Data Integrator.

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Data mapping

Data mapping is the process of defining a link between two disparate data models in the aim of future data integration.

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Data migration

Data migration is the process of moving a specific set of data from one system to the other. One system is the source system where the data resides prior to the migration, and one system is the destination system where the data will be inserted after. Criteria for determining the scope of data to be migrated affects the transformation that the data will go through.

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Data Model

A data model is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another. Their properties are generally governed by properties of the real world entities.

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Decouple

In computer architecture, decoupling allows two or more systems to communicate with each other without a physical dependency or knowledge of other systems. In many cases, this is done through a server-side API providing data to different user-facing UI applications.

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DEEP Backlog

A DEEP Backlog is a suggested objective of a product backlog grooming session. DEEP is an acronym used to indicate a few key traits of an effective product backlog. Each letter of DEEP in the acronym stands for: Detailed Appropriately: Items in the backlog contain enough contextual information to be understood and discussed. Emergent: It is easy to add new stories and items as new information arises. Estimated: The amount of effort involved with each item is roughly estimated with a standardized measure. Prioritized: Items on the backlog are ranked based on their value and the strategic purpose(s) they serve.

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Definition of done

Definition of Done is a term coined from the Scrum agile framework which describes the requirements that must be met in order for a story to be considered complete. Definition of Done is typically used by the entire team to agree on the terms that a finished product must exhibit. Definition of done is not the same as acceptance criteria in that it is a wide-ranging set of requirements that can apply to all items in the backlog, and not just a single one.

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Definition of ready

In the Scrum agile framework, Definition of Ready is the criteria that dictates when a story can move from the backlog to development. With keeping in the tradition of many of agile criteria, Ready is usually defined as a story that can be acted on immediately.

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DELETE

Delete is the 'D' of the CRUD verbs. It is the HTTP method for deleting resources with a RESTful API.

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Dependency

In project management, a dependency describes a relationship between two initiatives that must be executed in a particular order. If Initiative A is dependent on Initiative B, then Initiative B must be completed first. This situation frequently comes up in cross-functional teams, where development progress in one area is often dependent on the completion of certain stories or initiatives in another. Dependency also refers to the necessary 3rd-party libraries/scripts/packages/etc that a program requires to run.

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Design thinking

Design Thinking is a problem-solving methodology that can be employed by product managers and designers as well. In Design Thinking, teams begin by taking the viewpoint of the customer and trying to understand their aspirations, wishes, concerns, and frustrations. Instead of focusing on the company’s bottom line, Design Thinking focuses on what would be most important for the end user.

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DevOps

DevOps is software development practice that combines software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) with the aim to shorten the systems development life cycle while delivering features, fixes, and updates on a frequent basis.

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Digital experience platform

Digitial experience platforms are enterprise software applications that seek to meet the needs of companies undergoing digital transformation. Their ultimate goal is providing better customer experiences.

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Digital Marketing Hubs

A Digital Marketing Hub is software that spans multiple digital marketing domains (mobile, social and multi-channel) to provide integrated access to applications and workflows. Digital Marketing Hubs add capabilities such as collaboration, data integration and common analytics.

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Digital Marketing transformation

Also known as digital first, digital marketing transformation is the shift away from favoring traditional marketing channels to prioritizing digital media. It is based on removing the bias towards traditional marketing channels, and placing digital at the center of your thinking for marketing tactics.

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Disciplined agile

Disciplined Agile (DA), is a framework built around putting individuals first and offers little in the way of helping teams optimize their processes according to the unique needs of each project. As a people-first agile framework, DA is similar to the Crystal method. In fact, DA was created to be a hybrid approach combining elements of XP, Scrum, Kanban, and other methodologies.

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Disruptive Innovation

Disruptive innovation is a term that describes any type of innovation that creates a new industry, market, or business model which eventually “disrupts” an existing one. It was originally coined by Clayton M. Christensen.

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Docker

Docker is a tool designed to make it easier to create, deploy, and run applications by using containers in the aim of helping software ship as a complete package with the ability to run on any Linux machine. Click here to read about custom authentication to a private Docker registry with Nginx, Lua and AWS ECR.

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Documentation

Documentation, in a software context, refers to helpful information either embedded into code or published separately that describes what the code is, how it works, and other important pieces of information about how to correctly use the application, library or code it accompanies. Click here to access Kloudless' documentation.

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Dropbox

DropBox is a leading file hosting service that provides cloud storage and file synchronization across a host of client software applications and web tools. Click here to view all of Kloudess' storage connectors.

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Dropbox Namespace

Dropbox namespace refers to the collection of files and folders that are within a DropBox single shared folder, team folder, app folder, team’s root folder or a user’s home folder.

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Dual-track agile

Dual-track agile is a type of agile development where the cross-functional product team breaks its daily development work into two seperate tracks: discovery and delivery. The discovery track focuses on quickly generating product ideas for the backlog, and the delivery track focuses on turning those ideas into software that will release to market.

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Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)

The Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) is an agile framework focused on the entire project lifecycle and its impact on the business. Like the broader agile philosophy, DSDM is an iterative approach to software development, and this framework explicitly states “any project must be aligned to clearly defined strategic goals and focus upon early deliver of real benefits to the business.” Four principles govern this framework: feasibility and business study, functional model and prototype iteration, design and build iteration, and implementation.

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Egnyte

Egnyte is a company providing software for enterprise file synchronization and sharing. The products have the ability to store files in a company’s existing data repository, as well as offering cloud computing storage. Click here to read how e-signature company SignNow uses Kloudless for its Egnyte integration.

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Embedded Integrations

Embedded Integrations allow you to add another tool's data or functionality into your application. They can be a single service or multiple services packaged into a unified collection. To understand more benefits of taking your integrations in-house, read the "How Kloudless Works" section of our article here on when to use a Unified API versus a workflow automation tool.

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Endpoint

The URI that follows the base URL and specifies the requested API functionality.

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Engineering backlog

An engineering backlog is a list that prioritizes the stories, epics, and/or initiatives to be worked on within a given sprint. Items you find in an engineering backlog include stories, bug fixes, and other engineering-related tasks.

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Enterprise Information Archiving

Enterprise information archiving (EIA) is a process of archiving that incorporates new products and solutions for archiving user data (e-mail, files on file shares, instant messages, Microsoft SharePoint documents). EIA is also used in the archiving of other content types such as structured data.

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Enterprise Integration Platform as a Service

Enterprise integration platform as a service refers to a set of automated tools used for connecting software applications that are deployed across different environments. It is primarily used by large business-to-business (B2B) enterprises that need to integrate on-premises applications and data with cloud applications and data. Click here to read our perspective on why decentralization is the future of IPaaS. Click here to understand when to use a workflow automation tool versus a Unified API.

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Enterprise service bus

An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is a software architecture model with a set of rules and principles for the imtegration of different applications. In Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), an ESB replaces point-to-point integration. ESB products offer the power to let users build this type of architecture.

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Epic

An epic, like a theme, is a group of features or stories with a common strategic goal shared between them. An epic is one level of detail below a theme, as a theme can be comprised of several related epics.

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ETL

ETL (extract, transform, load) processes are three common functions performed on databases. Extract or read data from a database, transform the extracted data into a structure that can be placed into another database, and load or write the data into the target database.

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Evernote

Evernote is a popular note taking and organization software.

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Exchange Server

Microsoft Exchange Server is a mail server and calendaring server developed by Microsoft designed to run exclusively on Windows Server operating systems. Click here to learn how to connect to Microsoft Exchange Server with Kloudless.

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Expires

Generally in relation to an API, expires refers to the expiration of a session. A header that tells the client it may cache a response until a certain time.

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eXtreme Programming (XP)

eXtreme Programming (XP) is an agile framework that puts emphasis on both the broader philosophy of agile—to produce and maintain higher-quality software with the customer in mind—as well as the more specific goal of making life easier for the software engineers developing it. The main philosophies of XP include dynamically changing software requirements; using a small, collocated extended development team; and leveraging technology that focuses on adhering to automated unit and functional tests.

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Feature bloat

Feature bloat is a term to describe the result of incorporating too many features and functionalities into a product. Usually this term is reserved for products that have become crowded with extra “bells and whistles” features and are no longer able to perform their core function due to these extra add-ons. This could be for multiple reasons including slowdown, or even confusing UI interfaces.

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Feature flag

A feature flag refers to a team’s ability to turn a feature's functionality “on” or “off” at their personal discretion. There are many helpful reasons for this functionality, the main one being that it allows engineering teams to distinguish between code deployment and a feature rollout. A very heavily employed reason these days is enabling teams to toggle “on” or “off” premium features based on an account’s plan level.

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Feature-driven development

Feature Driven Development (FDD) is an agile framework that, as its name suggests, organizes software development to focus primarily on features. Features in the FDD context, though, are not necessarily product features in the commonly understood sense. They are more akin to user stories in Scrum in this framework. In other words, “complete the login process” might be considered a feature in the Feature Driven Development (FDD) methodology, and features should be organized based on necessity and importance to the user.

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Features

Features are a product’s traits or attributes that aim to deliver unique value to end users and differentiate a product in their market space. For example, the battery life of a mobile phone can be considered a feature. When it comes to software, product features include any of the application’s functionalities, capabilities, and even its visual characteristics. Click here to read about six things to consider when planning an effective integration strategy.

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File Browser

A file browser, or sometimes called file manager, is a user interface tool to facilitate the management of files and folders. They may allow the full use of CRUD operations in their permissions and generally display their contents in a hierarchical tree based on the directory structure. Click here to learn about the Kloudless File Explorer.

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File Explorer

The Kloudless File Explorer is a JavaScript UI library powered by the Kloudless Unified Cloud Storage API. Without needing to touch any native APIs, the File Explorer enables your users to browse and choose files & folders from any Cloud Storage service that is supported by our Unified Cloud Storage API.

Users can browse and select files or folders from any cloud storage service. Prompt users to select files to download to your app, as well as upload files from their personal computers.

The File Explorer is fully modifiable, open source, and actively supported and improved by our product team as well as the community.

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File storage

File storage is used for housing documents and files. File storage is generally used for sharing and collaboration on files, as well as syncing across multiple computers. Unlike object storage, file storage uses a conventional folder structure for accessing files. Click here to read about integrating with file storage versus object storage.

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File Uploader

A File Uploader is a UI tool used to facilitate the uploading of files to an application's database or an outside cloud storage service by using an HTML form or a drag and drop interface.

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g

Gateway

A gateway is simply a node in a computer network, a key stopping point for data on its way to or from other networks. The modern internet relies on gateways to send data back and forth between networks.

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General availability

General Availability (GA) is the mark for a release of a product to the general public. When a product reaches GA, it becomes universally available through the company’s general sales channel — as opposed to a limited release, beta version, or alpha version used primarily for testing and user feedback purposes.

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GET

GET is one of the four primary verbs of a CRUD application. It is the HTTP method for retrieving resources from a RESTful API.

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Go-to-Market strategy (GTM)

A product’s Go-to-Market strategy (GTM) is the plan that encompasses strategies and tactics involved in the release, promotion, and finally sale of a product. A GTM strategy generally covers things like pricing, main sales channels, marketing campaigns etc.

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Google Calendar

Google Calendar is a cloud-based scheduling and events calendar service offered by Google. Google Calendar offers a suite of user interfaces across mobile and desktop platforms for the creation and editing of events.

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Google Drive

Google Drive is a file storage software provided by Google with upload, download, sync, and share capabilities for use across multiple devices.

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h

H-card

H-card is a simple, open format for publishing people and organisations on the web. H-card is one of several open microformat draft standards suitable for embedding data in in (X)HTML, Atom, RSS, or arbitrary XML. The H-Card microformat accomplishes this by using a 1:1 representation of vCard properties and values, identified using HTML classes and rel attributes.

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HATEOAS

Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State is a feature of the REST architecture that allows the client to navigate through hypermedia exposed by the API. A hypermedia-driven site provides information to navigate the site's REST interfaces dynamically by including hypermedia links with the responses.

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Header

The header is what's sent preceeding the body of an HTTP request or response. Headers tell the interface information about the incoming request; the data-type, authorization information, additional info needed to help interpret the request.

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Host

The host is the header containing the domain name of the request URL.

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HTML

Hypertext Markup Language is a browser-based markup language and is used to structure websites and applications visually. Using a system of tags, HTML is considered the building blocks of any website or application, along with CSS and JavaScript.

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HTTP

HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol of the internet. HTTP determines what actions web servers and browsers should take based on what action is requested.

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HTTP Method

The part of an HTTP request that tells the server what the client wants to do. They are the verbs of interacting with APIs and include GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE.

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HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is how websites and APIs communicate securely over the internet by using transport layer encryption security.

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Hubspot

Hubspot is a SaaS platform for Sales and Marketing teams to focus on demand generation, customer relationship management, and analytics. Click here to view all of Kloudless' CRM connectors.

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Hybrid integration

Hybrid integration provides a middle ground solution for enterprises, assuring that data from on-premise legacy systems can integrate with cloud data. Hybrid integration is credited as giving businesses the best of both worlds wehn it comes to marrrying data sources from these provider methods.

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Hypermedia

Any content type that allows entities to link to each other in a standardized way, making other entities discoverable from a client. Hypermedia includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks.

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i

ID management

ID management is a process used for the authentication of users in accessing applications, systems, and networks. ID management generally contains a level of access and permissions a user has on a specific system or application. Click here to read "IDs: under the hood."

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Identity Governance and Administration

Identity Governance & Administration (IGA) is defined as “the policy-based centralized orchestration of user identity management and access control. Identity governance helps support enterprise IT security and regulatory compliance.”

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If-Modified-Since

If-modified-since is a header that asks to get a representation only if the representation has changed since the last request performed. It is primarily used for conditional GET requests.

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Integration Platform

An integration platform enables connectivity between different applications, systems, and services.

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Intelligent Business Process Management Suites

Intelligent business process management suites (iBPMS) are the natural evolution of the earlier BPMS market, adding AI, machine learning, and cloud-based connectivity to the latter. iBPMS is used for validation, verification, and optimization. The ability to gain insight into process performance has been included in many BPMS offerings for several years.

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Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects that connect to the internet. Embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of hardware, these physical devices can communicate and interact with other objects over the Internet, and can be remotely monitored and controlled.

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IPaaS (Integration Platform as a Service)

An integration platform as a service (iPaaS) is a cloud-based integration solution that connects to SaaS (software as a service) and cloud services with a secure and safe method of accessing on-premises applications behind a firewall. Click here to read why Kloudless believes in the future decentralization of iPaaS.

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IT Service Support Management Tools

IT service management (ITSM) refers to the entirety of activities – directed by policies, organized and structured by processes and supporting procedures – that are performed by an organization to help design, plan, deliver, operate and control information technology (IT) services offered to their customers.

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Iteration

In agile software development, iteration refers to a set amount of time reserved for development. Typically an iteration lasts for 1-2 weeks, however some may go as long as a month. Most agile development teams agree on the length of their iterations, and proceed to operate based on that decided length.

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Iterative testing

Iterative testing refers to the process of making very small changes or updates to a product and testing them against predefined metrics. It is commonly practiced on a UI/UX context but can be used in the context of product management as well.

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j

JavaScript

JavaScript, often referred to simply as JS, is an interpreted programming language that conforms to ECMAScript specification. JavaScript is generally used to enable interactivity in web pages, but can also be used as a server-side language, thanks to NodeJS. JavaScript is one of the 3 "building blocks" of webpages, along with HTML and CSS.

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Jira

Jira is a heavily-utilized project management tool developed by Atlassian, an Australian software company. Jira is widely used by agile development teams to track bug-fixes, stories, and epics, as well as the designation of tasks to software developers.

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Jive

Jive is a SaaS platform that focuses on providing communication and collaboration tools to businesses.

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JMS

Java Messaging Service (JMS) is a widely-used API for message-oriented middleware, allowing for communication between different components of a distributed application to be more loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

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JSON

Javascript Object Notation is a data format commonly used for APIs requests parameters and response body. JSON closely resembles Javascript objects wrapped in quotation marks, often referred to as a "stringified" object.

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k

Kanban board

A Kanban board is a method of visually arranging and tracking a team’s workflow, commonly used in agile project management. Kanban boards consist of columns representing various stages of progress, such as “not started,” “in review,” or "icebox." Under these columns, the team adds cards (generally Post-it notes) describing discrete tasks, and moves these cards to their appropriate columns, so everyone has a clear view of the team’s progress on user stories.

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Kanban roadmap

A Kanban roadmap aims to help product managers leverage the Kanban methodology in their strategic planning for a product. The Kanban technique involves grouping initiatives into clearly marked buckets such as ‘planned’, ‘in process’, ‘completed’, and ‘blocked.’ Applying this technique to product roadmapping can help product teams see the overall sequence of their product strategy in a big-picture, long-term context.

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Key performance indicator

A key performance indicator, or KPI, refers to a metric commonly used to determine performance or progress toward a goal over time. KPIs are quantitative metrics that are generall visited and revisited at various points of time to gauge performance.

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Kubernetes

Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration system for automating application deployment, scaling, and management. Originally designed by Google, it is now maintained by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation.

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l

Latency

Latency is the amount of time a message takes to traverse a system. In terms of an API, it is the time it takes for the API request to go from the request to the response.

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Legacy system modernization

Legacy systems modernization utilizes legacy systems while supporting emerging new technologies and business processes. An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) serves as a communication layer responsible for exposing legacy systems data to newer consumers.

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Legacy systems

In the context of computing, legacy systems are outdated computer systems, methods, technologies, or applications that are still used. Often referencing a system as "legacy" means that it paved the way for the standards that would follow it.

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Link

A link is a fully-qualified HTTP address for a particular resource (e.g., "http://my.api.com/v1/resources/resource-name"). RESTful APIs by definition should provide links from a resource to all related resources and collections which provide subsequent actions using the specific resource. Links allow for an API to be traversed organically and for an application developer to ensure his API Client is not in nearly as much jeopardy if a resource's location changed.

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Location

A location is the header that provides information about the location of a newly created resource. It is also what asks a web browser to load a different web page.

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m

Market validation

Market validation is the process of determining whether a product is of interest or adds value to a specific target market. Market validation usually involves a series of interviews with people in the target market, and it almost always takes place before significant investment has been made in the product/concept. Market validation has become a necessary step in the early stages of any product manager's product roadmap.

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Marketing requirements document

A market requirements document, or an MRD, is a strategic document created by a product manager or product marketing manager to help with defining the market’s requirements or demand for a product. An MRD usually contains information on a product’s vision, its competitive landscape, a business analysis and revenue opportunity, as well as a list of features.

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Mashup

A mashup is is a web page or web application that leverages content from more than one source to create a single new service displayed in a single graphical interface. Generally it can be described as combining multiple APIs to create a new web application.

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Media type

Media type is the Identifier used to indicate the type of data that a file contains.

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Meeting Scheduler

An open-source UI tool built by Kloudless for the orchestration of meetings and events across every service in the Kloudless Unified Calendar API.

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Meeting Solutions

Meeting Solutions is an event and meeting planning company specializing in corporate groups, association group, and more. They develop applications and associated endpoints that support interactions between participants for team work, presentations, training and webinars.

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Metadata

Metadata is simply data that provides information about other data. It is generally used to provide additional information about a piece of data's content. Web pages include metadata about their content in the form of <meta> tags that are used to convey information about the pages description, author, keywords, and more. Metadata contained in HTML is not visually shown on a page but is machine-parsable to provide a web browser with information related to the site's content.

The main types of metadata are descriptive, structural, administrative, reference, and statistical.

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Minimum viable feature

A Minimum Viable Feature (or MVF) is similar to a minimum viable product (MVP), but at the feature level as opposed to the overall product itself. While a minimum viable product can help an organization understand whether the problem they seek to solve is one that potential users need help with, a MVF helps an organization determine whether the proposed solution is the right one to pursue.

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Minimum viable product

A minimum viable product, or MVP, represents the earliest stage in a product’s development cycle at which the company believes it has enough features to attract potential customers and validate a product idea. In industries such as software, or for companies with limited funding, the MVP can help the product team receive user feedback as quickly as possible, which they can use to iterate and improve the product going forward in the future.

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Mock server

Mock servers are a standalone application used to allow other systems to send requests to it and respond with the pre-defined set of data. Essentially, they are a replacement for the real API that we want to avoid calling. They are traditionally used in testing an API.

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Monitoring

Monitoring is the process of collecting, analyzing and using information to track a program's progress toward reaching its objectives. It is generally used to make calculated management decisions for a program's development and future usability.

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Monthly Active Account

Monthly active accounts are the number of active users that belong to an application or service. It is a performance metric for the success of an internet product such as social networking services, online games, or mobile apps.

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Monthly recurring revenue

Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR) is a measurement of revenue generation on a month-to-month basis. This metric is often called “the holy grail of all SaaS metrics,” because it conveys an up-to-date measurement of the current financial health of a company. For deeper insight, MRR can be broken into specific categories such as new business MRR, expansion MRR, and churned MRR.

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MoSCoW prioritization

MoSCoW prioritization, also known as the MoSCoW method or MoSCoW analysis, is a popular prioritization technique for managing a product's requirements. The method is most commonly used to help important stakeholders understand the significance of initiatives in a release. The acronym, MoSCoW, stands for four different categories of initiatives: must-haves, should-haves, could-haves, and will not have at this time. Sometimes, the “W” in MoSCoW is used to stand for “wish” instead of “will not have right now.”

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n

Native Integration

Native integration refers to software that was designed to run on a specific platform, device, or operating system, and have the ability to use device-specific hardware and software.

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Net promoter score (NPS)

Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a tool used to gauge customer satisfaction with a product or service. With NPS, users are asked to rate the product on a 1-10 scale. Scores of 9-10 are considered promoters, 7-8 are considered passives, and 1-7 are considered detractors. Net Promoter Score is calculated by subtracting the percentage of promoters from the percentage of detractors. Scores range from -100 to 100. The higher the score, the better. NPS is also used across many different departments in companies, besides sales, as a guage of overall customer success.

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Nginx

Nginx is a free and open-source web server with reverse proxy, mail proxy, and HTTP cache capabilities. Employed as the second most widely used web server across all active sites on the web, Nginx is deployed to serve dynamic HTTP content over a network. Click here to read about logging HTTP request metadata and custom authentication to a private Docker registry with Nginx.

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o

OAuth

Open standard authorization framework. Grants access on behalf of an end-user without directly sharing credentials. Oauth is commonly used as a way for Internet users to grant websites or applications access to their information on other websites but without giving them the passwords. Click here to read more about cloud apps' authentication schemes.

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OAuth 2.0

OAuth 2.0 is an authentication protocol that allows for the interactivity of applications without the provision of a password. By using refreshing web tokens, OAuth 2.0 allows consumers to prove their identity to service providers. Click here to read more about cloud apps' authentication schemes.

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Object storage

Object storage is cloud based storage that unlike file storage uses flat address space to allow for the infinite scalability of storage. It principally uses an HTTP-based REST API to access data contained within. Common providers include Amazon S3, Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure. Click here to read more about object storage versus file storage.

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Objectives and Key Results (OKRs)

Objectives and key results, or OKRs, are a popular model for setting business objectives and measurable outcomes. The objectives, or the “O” are high-level goals, while the “KR” represent actual measurable key results. Objectives and Key Results help teams come up with ambitious but measure-able objectives, and are currently employed at many high-level companies and businesses.

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Office 365

Microsoft's premier software suite that encompasses all of their major software offerings, including Outlook, OneDrive, SharePoint, and more. Office 365 is based on a subscription model and operates on data being stored in the cloud through OneDrive.

Kloudless supports Office 365 in our Unified Cloud Storage API.

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On-premises

On-premises refers to a type of software that is installed and run from an organization's in-house server and native computing resources rather than a remote facility, such as the cloud. Click here to understand whether cloud or on-premises deployment is right for you.

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Open source

In open source, the original source code is freely available for universal redistribution and modification. Open-source software grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose, and may be developed in a collaborative public manner. To understand OpenAPI Spec, read our article in TechBeacon here.

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Opportunity scoring

Opportunity scoring is an increasingly popular strategy for prioritizing features on a product roadmap. Product teams employ this strategy when they wish to learn which features customers view as important but are unhappy with in their current state. Improving these features can help to provide opportunities for the product to win increased customer satisfaction and loyalty and also to attract new customers.

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p

Pair programming

Pair programming is an agile software development practice in which two programmers team up at one workstation to maximize efficiency. With pair programming, one of the two programmers (the driver) writes the code while the other watches and tells the other how to proceed and what to write (the navigator). The two programmers switch roles frequently.

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Parameter

In computing, a parameter is a reference or value that is passed to a function, procedure, subroutine, command, or program. In relation to an API, a parameter is an argument sent to the API that helps define the request and expected response.

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Pass-Through API

A pass-through API is a security-free API made for requests to quickly be passed to the backend without security checks.

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Persona

In product management, a persona is a profile of a product’s typical or ideal user. Personas are used to help a product manager (and others in the organization involved with the product’s development) understand key traits, behaviors, goals, responsibilities, and needs of a specific type of user. Product managers typically aim to document various personas, such as buyer personas, customer personas, and decision-maker personas, to better understand how to meet the needs of these potential categories of users.

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Pipeliner

Pipeliner is a CRM software that focuses on sales enablement.

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Pivot

Pivot in a product management context refers to a shift in the strategic direction of the business or software application's purpose. Usually the decision to pivot a product is the result of competitive changes, new findings about the market, or shortcomings in the original strategic plan.

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PlanGrid

PlanGrid is cloud-based construction productivity software. PlanGrid’s mobile-first technology gives general contractors, subs, owners and architects access to information in real-time, enables greater collaboration and provides actionable insights. With PlanGrid, any construction team member can manage and update blueprints, specs, photos, RFIs, field reports, punchlists and other information from any device. PlanGrid’s platform is accessible on any device — either mobile with native iOS, Android and Windows apps, desktop or any web browser. Click here to read Kloudless' announcement of our PlanGrid integration.

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Point-to-point

Point-to-point architecture directly integrates one application to another to permit one-to-one communication between the two. It tends to be associated with increased maintenance costs and lack of flexibility and manageability.

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POST

POST is one of the 4 primary verbs of a CRUD application. It is the HTTP method for creating resources with a RESTful API.

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Postman

Postman is a popular API development environment used to design, test, monitor, and publish application programming interfaces. Click here to read the announcement of Kloudless' Postman collection.

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Postman collection

Postman Collections are executable descriptions of an API made to allow easier access to testing for developers. Postman Collections boast a handful of helpful testing tool like documentation generation and the ability to incorporate mock servers into the API testing process. Click here to read our announcement of Kloudless' Postman collection.

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Prioritization

Prioritization is the process in which a set of items are ranked by their order of importance. In product management, initiatives in the backlog must be prioritized as a means of deciding what development should proceed next. There are a number of prioritization methods commonly used by product managers, such as the Kano Model, Weighted Scoring, and Opportunity Scoring.

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Procore

Procore is a cloud-based construction management software application that helps firms to increase their project efficiency and accountability by providing streamlined project communication and documentation. From the office or the construction site, users can manage all of their projects from any web-connected mobile device, tablet, laptop, or desktop. Everyone from general contractors and architects to engineers and construction management firms can edit and share project data while facility owners can view the progress of each project in their portfolios. Click here to read the announcement of Kloudless' Procore integration.

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Product backlog

A product backlog lists and prioritizes task-level details required to properly execute on the strategic plan agreed to in the roadmap. The backlog communicates what comes next on the development team’s to-do list as they execute on the roadmap’s big-picture vision. Typical items in a product backlog include user stories, bug fixes, optimization, and other tasks.

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Product design

Product design is the process of imagining, creating, and iterating products that solve users’ problems or address specific needs in a given target market.

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Product designer

A product designer is the team member responsible for the user experience of a product. Product designers usually take direction on the business goals and objectives from product management. Although usually associated with the visual/tactile aspects of a product, product designers may also play a significant role in the information architecture and system design of a product.

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Product differentiation

Product differentiation refers to a process employed to distinguish a product or service from other similar examples available in the market. The primary goal of this process is to help businesses develop a competitive advantage and define compelling unique selling propositions (USPs) with the aim to set their product apart from competitors. Organizations with multiple products in their portfolio may use differentiation to separate their own various products from each other and prevent cannibalization.

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Product management audit

A product management audit is a complete, objective review of a company’s product strategy and processes that govern their product management. Each aspect of the product strategy and process is rated by a numerical value to identify areas of weakness that would benefit from improvement, as well as any areas that are completely lacking. By employing a numerical rating instead of a binary one, progress and improvement over time can be tracked and measured and guaged of it's importance to the long-term roadmap.

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Product manager

The responsibilities of the typical product manager include the following: market, competitive, and customer research; articulation of the business value to the product team; generation, development, and curation of new ideas; product roadmap planning and prioritization; making build versus buy decisions; and selecting vendors to work with.

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Product market fit

Product-market fit describes the scenario in which a company’s target customers are buying, using, and telling others about the company’s product in large enough numbers to sustain that product’s growth and overall profitability.

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Product marketing manager

A product marketing manager’s (PMM) primary responsibility is to communicate their product’s value to the market. A PMM’s job responsibilites could include training sales employees on how to sell the product, creating marketing materials that cohesively communicate product features, and developing the marketing tools and campaigns to attract new prospective customers.

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Product operations

Product ops, or product operations, is a relatively new discipline that shares similarities to marketing ops. Product ops builds a foundation for excellence by reinforcing product strategy with metrics, infrastructure, business processes, best practices, budgeting, and reporting. In short, product ops aims to support the product team and help build better products.

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Product owner

The product owner is the person who executes the product vision. They translate stories and sprint tasks into assignable actions for developers.

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Product portfolio management

Product portfolio management is a practice of managing an organization’s entire product portfolio, which usually consists of all the products an organization has. A product portfolio manager generally is responsible for allocating resources for optimal ROI, identifying areas to improve in, and keeping the products aligned with the organization’s broader market strategy.

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Product requirements document

A product requirements document (PRD) is a document used in the product development process to communicate what capabilities and functionality absolutely has to be included in a product release to the development and testing teams. This document is typically used more in waterfall environments where product definition, design and delivery happen sequentially, but may be employed for use in an agile setting as well.

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Product vision

A product vision, or product vision statement, describes the overarching long-term mission and goals of a product. Vision statements are aspirational and communicate concisely where the product aims to go and what it hopes to achieve in the long term lifecycle of it's existence.

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Program manager

A program manager controls the coordination of interdependencies among projects, products, and other important strategic initiatives across an organization. This role requires close focus on a lateral view across the entirety of an organization.

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Protocol

A defined way of transferring data between peers. In computing, protocol is generally a set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices.

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Proxy

In computing, a proxy refers to a server that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers

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PUT

PUT is one of the 4 primary verbs of a CRUD application. It is the HTTP method for updating resources with a RESTful API.

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q

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

Quality Function Deployment, or QFD, is a model for product development and production popularized in Japan in the 1960’s. The model aims to translate customer needs and expectations into technical requirements by listening to the voice of the customer and then outlining steps based on their accounts.

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r

Rapid prototyping

Rapid prototyping is the action of making a 3-D prototype of a feature or product that you can then test. In testing, you quickly reveal ways to improve your feature or product's usability.

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Rate-limiting

A software company establishes rate limits on their API by capping the number of requests someone can make to it within a certain period of time. Click here to read "API requests at scale: Rate-limits and Quotas."

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Recurrence Rule

A recurrence rule, or RRULE, defines the repeat pattern or rule for to-dos, journal entries and events in calendar APIs. They are essentially a means to check if an event repeats.

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Refactoring

Developers refactor a codebase by cleaning up the code or changing the internal structure. While this rarely has impact on an application's external user, it does improve the application because the developers have an easier time working on app improvements in the future.

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Refresh Token

A developer exchanges a refresh token for a renewed access token in order to access a secured resource. A refresh token essentially provides ongoing authentication if or until it is blacklisted by an authentication server.

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Release Demo

At the end of a work sprint, agile product teams deliver a release demo to show to a group of stakeholders what they executed during the sprint.

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Release Notes

Product teams write release notes to inform internal and external stakeholders and users of product changes, updates and known issues.

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Release Plan

Product teams create an internal release plan to map out the products or features for their next release. The plan is something they work off of for a period of months.

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Representation

In the body of an HTTP response or request, the representation is the data that describes the status of the resource.

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Resource

A resource is some object or entity that has a URI where it can be manipulated through HTTP requests. Resources are generally returned via response from an API.

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REST

Representational state transfer is an architectural pattern for interacting with resources via HTTP methods. Web services that conform to a REST architectural style provide interoperability between systems on the Internet. In REST architecture, everything is a resource.

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RESTful web services

RESTful web services are web services built on a REST architecture.

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Retrospective

A retrospective is a meeting best held soon after the completion of a sprint or project. In the meeting, teams share what worked, what didn't and what can be improved about their processes and deliverables.

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RICE scoring model

RICE stands for reach, impact, confidence, and effort. These are four factors that product managers consider when deciding which features or products to prioritize on their roadmaps.

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Roadmap

A product roadmap outlines the product leaders' vision and goals for the product. More about strategy than execution, the product roadmap is not as granular as a release plan.

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s

S3 (Amazon)

(Answered above on Amazon S3)

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S3-compatible

S3 Compatible Storage is a storage solution that allows access to and management of the data it stores over an S3 compliant interface. Many services provide S3-compatible object strorage including Google Cloud Storage, Microsoft Azure, and more. Click here for four helpful ways to get the most out of S-3 compatible services with Kloudless' Unified Storage API.

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SaaS Integration

SaaS integration enables connectivity across SaaS applications, systems, and services with the direct aim of integration to applications, data sources, and services across the cloud.

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Safe Method

Safe methods are HTTP methods that do not modify resources. Specfically, they do not change the resource representation. GET and HEAD are examples of safe methods.

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Salesforce Integration

A Salesforce integration solution is a piece of software that establishes and oversees communication between Salesforce CRM and other systems. Salesforce integration solutions use APIs to interpret the messages that these systems exchange.

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Salesforce Streaming API

Salesforce Streaming API enables streaming of events and provides a subscription mechanism for receiving events in almost real time. The Streaming API subscription mechanism supports many different types of events, including PushTopic events, generic events, platform events, and Change Data Capture events. Click here to read "Five hidden obstacles in the Salesforce streaming API."

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Scaled agile framework

The Scaled Agile Framework, or SAFe, methodology is an agile framework created to help development teams built on three seperate pillars: Team, Program, and Portfolio. SAFe was designed to give teams flexibility and to aid in the management of some of the challenges larger organizations encounter when practicing agile. It is designed not as a single methodology, but as a more broad knowledge base of best practices that teams have used to deliver successful software products in the past.

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Scope creep

The scope of a project tends to creep (expand beyond its initial focus) when a product ream receives and addresses additional feature and product requests on an onoing basis.

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Scrum agile framework

Scrum is a project management approach in which teams organize themselves in a flat structure and work in two-week sprints to achieve smaller goals within their larger feature and product goals. Normally the ScrumMaster directs the team and the Product Owner advocates the perspective of the internal and external product stakeholders and users.

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Scrum master

See "scrum agile framework." The ScrumMaster on a scrum team defines who does what at what time. They maximize team productivity while keeping a bird's eye view of each sprint's objectives.

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Scrum meeting

See "scrum agile framework." A scrum meeting is any meeting among members of the scrum team. These include but are not limited to retrospectives, standups and release planning meetings.

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Semantic Content

Semantic content adds meaning to web resources through the use of specialized tags. Semantic content uses HTML elements to clearly describe their meaning to both the browser and the developer. Examples would include <span>, <article>, <footer>, and a host of others.

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Server

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality or data for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and makes up a large part of the data transmission across the internet.

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Service-oriented architecture

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a type of software architecture based on the creation of a repository of standardized and reusable services which can be composed into an aggregate service in the aim of automating a business process. This process is commonly referred to as service-orientation.

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ServiceNow

ServiceNow is a company that provides service management software as a service. The primarily specialize in IT services management (ITSM), IT operations management (ITOM) and IT business management (ITBM).

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Sharefile

Created by Citrix Systems, ShareFile is a secure content collaboration, file sharing and sync software that provides and supports document-centric tasks and workflow needs of both small and large organizations. ShareFile also offers cloud-based/on-prem storage, virtual data rooms and client portals.

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Sharepoint Online

SharePoint Online is the Office 365 for enterprises offering a cloud-based software to help with document management and collaboration across many devices.

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SLA

A Service Level Agreement (SLA) between a provider and a receiver that details the nature of what's being provided, such as the goals, review, metrics and what can be done if expectations are not met.

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Slack

Slack is a widely-implemented cloud-based set of proprietary team collaboration tools and services, most notably used for their messaging functionality.

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Slack Discovery API

Slack Discovery API lets Organization owners on the Enterprise Grid plan use approved third-party apps to export or act on messages and files from Slack. Click here for a comparison of the Slack Discovery API with their Web API.

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SMB for file storage

SMB, or Server Message Block Protocol, is a client-server communication protocol used for sharing access to files, printers, serial ports and other resources on a network.

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SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a specification for the exchange of structured information over the internet. Simple Object Access Protocol is an XML-based messaging protocol that defined the exchange of information in the implementation of web services. SOAP messages are not limited to operating system or protocol.

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Software as a Service (SaaS)

Software as a Service (SaaS) is a way of delivering applications via the Internet as a web-based service. Access over the Internet means there is no need to download or maintain any software.

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SOSL

SOSL, or Salesforce Object Search language, is used to perform text searches in Salesforce records, capable of searching fields across standard and custom object records in Salesforce.

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Spaghetti Code

Often referred to as "point-to-point integration," spaghetti code is a term to define source code written without a cohesive structure. Often custom integrations, these connections have no clear way to monitor or troubleshoot issues. It is incredibly ineffective for scaling given the tight dependency between applications.

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Sprint

See "scrum agile framework." A sprint is a period of two weeks in which teams complete specified projects. A spring typically starts with a kick-off meeting in which team members outline the tasks, followed later by a meeting to review the work completed.

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Sprint backlog

See "sprint" and "scrum agile framework." A sprint backlog is the list of tasks a team chooses from to include in and complete during their next sprint.

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Sprint goal

The goal of a sprint is to complete tasks in the sprint backlog that contribute to the larger release plan and roadmap objectives.

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Sprint planning

Sprint planning is a meeting in which the sprint goals are determined, drawing on the sprint backlog. At this brief meeting, team members commit to their tasks they will complete within the two-week time period.

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SSL

SSL, or Secure Sockets Layer, is a cryptographic protocol that secures traffic on the internet. SSL is the standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser.

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Stakeholder

A stakeholder is anyone who has interest in the product. This could be because they use the product, sell the product or are affected by it in some way. Most often it is the internal team or person who requested the product in the first place so they could then use or distribute it.

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Stakeholder analysis

A stakeholder analysis is the process of naming the stakeholders and defining how they will be involved and communicated with. For example, a stakeholder analysis might lay out which stakeholders are need to be informed, to review or give input on certain aspects or deliverables of a project or product.

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Standup

A standup is a meeting that often occurs daily. Each team member shares what they've done, what they will do and what blockers they have to accomplishing what they will do. The meeting encourages frequent collaboration among team members.

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Status Code

HTTP status codes are what the server sends in the response back to the client to indicate the status of the request, both good and bad.

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Storage

Storage is the means through which data is saved within a data storage device by computing technology. Storage enables a computer to retain data temporarily or permanently. Storage may also be referred to as computer data storage, electronic data storage, or cloud data storage.

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Storage API

A storage API connects a locally-based application to a cloud-based storage system, so that a user can send data to it and access and work with data stored in it. Storage APIs can host both file storage and object storage. Common examples include DropBox, Box, Amazon S3, and Google Drive.

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Story mapping

A story map is a chronological, horizontal telling of how a product user moves through their journey from product discovery to adoption to use. It can also convey what the product is doing at each stage of this journey that the product user may not see.

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Story point

A story point is a measurement unit used by development teams to approximate the amount of effort required to execute a single item in the backlog. Because not all developers work at the same pace and speed, this system of measurement helps create a standardized language that is understood universally across the team.

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Sugar CRM

SugarCRM produces the web application Sugar, a customer relationship management system. SugarCRM's functionality includes sales-force automation, marketing campaigns, customer support, collaboration, Mobile CRM, Social CRM and reporting.

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SugarSync

SugarSync is a cloud-based service that enables the active synchronization of files across computers and other devices for file backup, access, syncing, and sharing across a variety of operating systems

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SWOT analysis

SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. These are four internal and external factors meant to evaluate a product or company's chances of future or continued success.

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Symmetrical Encryption

Symmetric-key algorithms are used for cryptography, and use the same cryptographic keys for encrypting plaintext and decrypting ciphertext. The keys may be identical or there may be a simple transformation to go between them.

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System Integrators

A systems integrator is a person or company specializing in bringing component subsystems together and ensuring that those subsystems function together, as well as solving issues related to automation. This practice is known as system integration.

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System of Record

System of record is a term related to data management that refers to an information storage system that is the authoritative data source for a given element of data or piece of information.

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t

Tcat

Tcat Server is an Enterprise Tomcat Application Server which simplifies tasks for integration, management, and application provisioning. It is generally used to help deploy multiple applications across different servers.

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Technical Debt

When a product team needs to complete something quickly, they often sacrifice the cleanliness or quality of the code used to complete the task. What results is called "technical debt" because such code may need to refactored later. Click here to read strategies for fighting technical debt.

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Technical product manager

A technical product manager is a product manager who has and uses a more technical background than that of a typical product manager.

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The Kano Model

The Kano Model is an example of a prioritization framework designed to help product teams prioritize initiatives. Kano helps teams determine which features will satisfy and even delight customers. Product managers often use the Kano Model to prioritize new features by grouping them into seperate categories. These feature categories can range from those that could possibly disappoint customers, to those likely to entrall or captivate customers.

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Theme

A theme is a product goal that relates to multiple features that relate to each other. For example, a software application for the government may have a security-focused theme of passing FedRAMP approval.

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Third-Party API

Third-party APIs, unlike Browser APIs, are APIs provided by third parties to allow you to access their functionality and use it in a site or application. Located on third party servers, they generally require a certain level of authentication to access their data.

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Tomcat

Apache Tomcat is the world's most widely used open source web application server. It is used to power everything from server sites to large enterprise networks.

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Top-down product strategy

Top-down product strategy defines the chronological order of product development and improvement. It starts with vision and goals generating from the top product leaders before any roadmap or release plans are created.

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Total Addressable Market (TAM)

Total Addressable Market (TAM) refers to all the people or businesses in a given market who might want and consider using your product. For example, if you make a car-sharing app that only works in the US, you might consider your TAM the number of Americans who don't own cars but own smartphones and, based on research, would be willing to try or are interested in ride-sharing.

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Transformer

A transformer prepares a message to be processed through a ESB flow by enhancing or altering the message header or message payload.

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u

Unified API

A unified API provides an abstraction layer that consolidates multiple third-party APIs into a single set of data models accessed through common API endpoints. Click here to read our integration strategy guide with more details on leveraging Unified APIs.

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Unique selling proposition

A unique selling proposition (USP) is the brief explanation of what differentiates your product from similar products and why that differentiator makes your product more desirable to your target users.

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Universal API

A Universal API aggregates content from multiple sources into a single API connection, generally across a categorical similarity. While offering multiple services in a single API connection, a Universal API is not to be confused with a Unified API, as it does not abstract away the differences between the data returned from the APIs that it connects to.

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URI

A Unique Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters that identifies a particular resource. The URI generic syntax consists of a hierarchical sequence of five components: scheme, authority, path, query, and fragment.

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Usability testing

In a usability test, product and UX designers observe how people use their product for various purposes so as to understand how and where designers need to make the product easier to use.

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Use case

A use case is a scenario in which a person or company uses a product to fill a need they have. A product manager might share a use case with a prospect so that the prospect understands how the product works and why it's used. A use case can be real or hypothetical. A formal write-up of a use case could be referred to as a a case study. Click here to read case studies featuring companies using Kloudless' Unified APIs.

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User experience

The user experience describes the impact of the product on the user during and surrounding their usage of the product, including how they feel before, during and after usage. Speed, ease of use and perceived value are key components of user experience.

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User interface

A user interface, or UI, comprises the user-facing parts of your product, such as the dashboard or console from where a user takes actions or views information.

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User persona

A user persona is a snapshot of the typical person who would be using the product. Based on anecdotes and research, the user persona reflects the characteristics and pain points of the ideal or most-likely user of the product. A company can further designate its products' primary and secondary user personas based on demand and other factors.

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User research

User research is the practice of gathering and learning from information about a user's characteristics, preferences and pain points. It can be used to develop a typical user persona. It is broader than and may or may not include usability testing.

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User story

A user story is a small, self-contained unit of development work designed to accomplish a specific goal within a product. A user story is written from the perspective of a potential user and follows the format: “As [a user persona], I want [to perform this action] so that [I can accomplish this goal].” They are often associated with Kanban boards and written on Post-it notes.

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User-agent

A user-agent is a header that lets the server know what type of software is making the request. User-agents contain information about the user agent originating the request. This header should generally be used for statistical purposes or automated user agent recognition in order to handle the particular software limitations.

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UX Designer

A user experience designer finds out what interface improvements will increase the user's satisfaction with a product. Such improvements often increase the speed and ease of use of the product.

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v

V2MOM

V2MOM is a visioning and planning framework created by Salesforce.com CEO, Marc Benioff, that stands for Vision, Values, Methods, Obstacles and Measures.

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Versioning

Versioning is the process of assinging a unique identifier to keep track of the state of a product, software, or even an API. Once changes have been made to any of these, the version number or name should change.

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w

Waterfall

Waterfall is a method that refers to long-term product development. It is characterized by a sequential series of stages such as conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing, implementation, and maintenance. The key difference from agile is that, in a waterfall development environment, once the work for a stage has been completed, the team cannot turn back and reiterate; development must move on to the next stage.

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Web service

Web Service is used to describe an API that is accessable over the internet through HTTP, more specifically for transferring machine-readable file formats such as XML and JSON.

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WebDAV

WebDAV, or Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning, is an extension of HTTP. The protocol provides a framework for users to create, change and move documents on a server.

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Webhook

A webhook provides real-time information or automated messages to other applications. A webhook delivers data to other applications as an event trigger it, proving information as it happens. Unlike polling, which requires constant calls to check for changes at an endpoint, webhooks relay data to the provider and consumer in real time. Click here to read how to get started with Kloudless webhooks.

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Weighted scoring

A weighted scoring model allows product teams to rank features and products on their roadmap in priority order according to a standardized cost-to-benefit analysis of each.

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White label

White label refers to the process when a product or service produced by one company is rebranded to make it appear as if another company had made it.

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Wireframe

A wireframe is a non-interactive visual of a product's interface, which may contain unfinalized images and copy with the goal of showing how everything will look before the visual is built and pushed live.

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Workflow Automation

Workflow Automation is the design, execution, and automation of processes based on workflow rules. It governs where human tasks, data or files are routed between people or systems based on pre-defined business rules. Popular software solutions for workflow automation include Nintex, Asana, and Zoho Creator. Click here to learn when to use a workflow automation tool versus when to use a Unified API.

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x

XML

Extensible markup language is a format that is used to describe documents and data. XML is sometimes used for responses in APIs, although JSON is the far more common format.

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y

YAML

YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a data-serialization language created to be human readable. It is generally used for configuration files, but can also be used in applications for data storage and data transmission purposes. YAML looks similar to JSON, but uses indentation in its syntax that closely resembles that of Python.

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z

Zoho

Zoho is an online office suite offering word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, databases, note-taking, wikis, web conferencing, customer relationship management, project management, invoicing, and other applications. Click here to view all of Kloudless' connectors.

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